Since you removed the original Presenter files from your HD, there is no way to alter the quiz and re-publish with the audio remaining intact. This is because Presenter is looking for all of the original files that it creates in order to publish - hence, this includes any created, inserted, or imported audio files. Once a PowerPoint is altered and published in Presenter, it creates numerous output files that are powering any changes made, and all are needed in order to preserve the published piece. Should you need to make any changes, you must go back to the originating folder where the Presenter piece was saved, and then Presenter can re-publish the entire piece with any applicable changes made to it.
Now, onto the real issue at hand. If the files have been emptied from you Recycle Bin, I suggest using an 'undelete' software of sorts. A good free one to use is Piriform Recuva. If you choose to go the 'undelete' route, make certain that the software can recover the file extension that your PowerPoint was saved in (.ppt, .pptx). There are some undelete softwares that can't save Office 2007 file extensions, only Office 2003 or earlier.
Last option is to do a System Restore and go back to when you had the original presentation available prior to deletion.
Good luck, I hope this helps!